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This report provides policymakers with a detailed look at a fourteen regulatory, policy, market-based, and load-targeting mechanisms that are emerging as effective practices for increasing the use of demand side resources. Based on research in several countries, the highlighted mechanisms—some aimed at vertically-integrated power sectors, some at liberalized market systems, and some at both—are designed to break down the economic and institutional barriers to investment in clean energy resources on the customer’s side of the meter. Specific suggestions include mandating time-varying pricing structure, encouraging implementation of demand side management technologies through incentives and mandates, and enabling financing mechanisms and markets for development of these systems, all as a part of guiding the transformation toward improved demand side management in the power system.
Located in Topics & Resources / Demand Response and Storage / Demand Response and Storage Folder
Utilities worldwide are concerned about the financial impact of increasing distributed PV adoption among their retail customers. This report analyzes the impact of distributed PV deployment on distribution utility revenues and retail electricity tariffs in Thailand. It provides policymakers, utilities, and other energy practitioners a real-world example of how distributed PV affects certain stakeholders.
Located in Topics & Resources / Distributed Generation / Distributed Generation folder
This short report defines compensation mechanisms for grid-connected, behind-the-meter distributed generation (DG) systems as instruments that comprise three core elements: (1) metering & billing arrangements, (2) sell rate design, and (3) retail rate design. This report describes metering & billing arrangements, with some limited discussion of sell rate design. The report details the three possible arrangements for metering & billing of DG: net energy metering (NEM); buy all, sell all; and net billing.
Located in Topics & Resources / Distributed Generation / Distributed Generation folder
Value of solar is an emerging concept that provides a mechanism (e.g., rates or tariffs) for utilities to compensate customers who generate their own electricity through distributed PV, based on the benefits and costs that distributed solar provides or incurs to the power system. This report discusses program design options for Value of Solar tariff offerings and the impact of this type of tariff on future deployment of distributed PV. It also includes case studies from two utilities in the United States (Austin Energy and the state of Minnesota) that have adopted Value of Solar mechanisms.
Located in Topics & Resources / Distributed Generation / Distributed Generation folder
In anticipation of significant growth in distributed PV in India, this report reviews global and Indian policies and regulations for distributed generation; identifies technical challenges to significantly increasing grid-connected distributed PV; and makes recommendations for addressing power quality, safety, grid stability, and distribution system operation issues. The report provides an example of a country-specific review and synthesis of best practices to inform national and state-level technical and grid code specifications, advanced inverter functionalities, and meter technology considerations, certification, and testing processes.
Located in Topics & Resources / Distributed Generation / Distributed Generation folder
Technological innovations are supporting increased distributed solar penetration levels. One important innovation involves the use of advanced inverter functionality to address PV grid integration challenges, and, in many cases, may only require software and operations protocol updates of inverters currently in use. The report describes the use of advanced inverters to support voltage and frequency level control as distributed generation comes on and off-line. Policy and regulatory consideration to support advanced inverter deployment are also presented in the paper.
Located in Topics & Resources / Distributed Generation / Distributed Generation folder
To enable distributed PV that can supply electricity during grid outages, this paper presents approaches specifically to support resiliency through design of PV systems utilizing storage technologies, community energy storage, solar-diesel hybrid systems, and micro-grids. The paper also considers policies and regulations to support distributed PV that contributes to resiliency.
Located in Topics & Resources / Distributed Generation / Distributed Generation folder
Traditional interconnection processes evaluate the impacts of a given distributed generator to safety, reliability, and power quality after an interconnection request is received. This concept note introduces “Integrated Distribution Planning,” an alternative, emerging methodology designed to enable distributed PV. In the Integrated Distributed Planning concept, utilities or distribution system operators proactively study the hosting capacity of distribution circuits, the ability of these distribution circuits to accommodate growth in distributed generation, and any necessary infrastructure upgrades, all in advance of receiving interconnection requests from generators.
Located in Topics & Resources / Distributed Generation / Distributed Generation folder
Germany leads the world in deployment of distributed PV, with PV generation contributing approximately 40% of peak power demand during some hours of the year. This article outlines the impacts of high PV deployment in Germany on grid stability and power flows in the transmission and distribution system. It also highlights practical solutions that Germany has implemented to support frequency and voltage control and reduce congestion, and suggests new concepts for voltage-control strategies.
Located in Topics & Resources / Distributed Generation / Distributed Generation folder
In this report, the authors explore whether conventional thermal power plants in Europe are flexible enough to support power ramps from wind. The report suggests a system approach to enabling the appropriate mix and levels of flexibility to address various possible scenarios.
Located in Topics & Resources / Flexible Generation / Flexible Generation folder
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