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This report discusses the links between weather forecasts and photovoltaic (PV) output, as well as the various methods for conducting forecasting. Also included is an example of “upscaling” in which representative systems are used to develop a forecast for a larger pool of systems. The authors also analyze the accuracy of tools and present a survey of tools used worldwide.
Located in Topics & Resources / Forecasting / Forecasting folder
This report describes the state-of-the-art with respect to variable generation integration, mostly focused on the United States but also providing a few international examples where particularly relevant. The report is predominantly based on an extensive literature review with input from General Electric (GE) and PJM. Pages 97–119 focus on forecasting.
Located in Topics & Resources / Forecasting / Forecasting folder
This paper focuses on foundational rate design principles that are typically associated with conventional meters. Despite growing deployment of smart meters, most electricity customers are served by conventional meters. The wide variety of pricing practices discussed in this paper highlight global case studies that have exhibited the ability to enable system operators to send price signals that alter retail customer behavior, affect needed capital improvements, and influence a utility’s capital investments.
Located in Topics & Resources / Demand Response and Storage / Demand Response and Storage Folder
As adoption of DG increases, demand for utility provided power decreases. This report assesses the impacts this decreased demand is likely to have on utility recovery of fixed costs, rate structures, and emphasizes best practices for DG regulation.
Located in Topics & Resources / Regulation & Public Policy / Regulation & Public Policy folder
This report discusses system operations and investment in liberalized electricity markets in which greater variable RE and energy efficiency resources are being deployed. It overviews current and foreseen challenges and possible policy and regulatory solutions to improve the cost efficiency and flexibility of the grid. Chapter 3 (pg. 36) outlines operational challenges associated with significant variable RE penetration.
Located in Topics & Resources / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
This white paper identifies guiding principles that can assist power system planners in conducting analysis of grid reliability impacts associated with meeting carbon dioxide emission reduction targets, with specific reference to the United States’ Clean Power Plan (CPP). The CPP, issued in August 2015 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, sets limits on carbon dioxide emissions from existing fossil fuel-fired generators, and requires states to consider grid reliability impacts in their compliance plans. This white paper aims to promote robust analysis of the reliability impacts of the CPP by recommending guiding principles related to: 1) transparency and stakeholder engagement; 2) study methodology and interactions between studies; 3) study inputs, sensitivities and probabilistic analysis; and 4) tools and techniques. Though specifically crafted with reference to the CPP, the principles and analysis considerations presented in this white paper are generally applicable to other grid integration studies in different power system contexts.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Integration Studies / Grid Integration Studies folder
Mexico is a regional leader in setting goals for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and distributed generation (DG) development is a key priority for the country's policymakers. Current DG policies have fostered growth but need to be modernized to serve current needs and accommodate higher penetration levels. In this report, NREL summarizes international DG policy experiences and best practices and identifies the potential opportunities for policy reform.
Located in Topics & Resources / Regulation & Public Policy / Regulation & Public Policy folder
Germany leads the world in deployment of distributed PV, with PV generation contributing approximately 40% of peak power demand during some hours of the year. This article outlines the impacts of high PV deployment in Germany on grid stability and power flows in the transmission and distribution system. It also highlights practical solutions that Germany has implemented to support frequency and voltage control and reduce congestion, and suggests new concepts for voltage-control strategies.
Located in Topics & Resources / Distributed Generation / Distributed Generation folder
Utilities worldwide are concerned about the financial impact of increasing distributed PV adoption among their retail customers. This report analyzes the impact of distributed PV deployment on distribution utility revenues and retail electricity tariffs in Thailand. It provides policymakers, utilities, and other energy practitioners a real-world example of how distributed PV affects certain stakeholders.
Located in Topics & Resources / Distributed Generation / Distributed Generation folder
Value of solar is an emerging concept that provides a mechanism for utilities to compensate customers who generate their own electricity through DPV, based upon the cost-benefits to the power system. This report discusses program design options for Value of Solar tariff offerings and the impact of this type of tariff on future deployment of DPV. It also includes case studies from two jurisdictions in the United States (Austin, Texas and the state of Minnesota) that have adopted Value of Solar mechanisms.
Located in Topics & Resources / Regulation & Public Policy / Regulation & Public Policy folder
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