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DPV can be designed to supply electricity during grid outages. This paper presents approaches that specifically support resiliency through design of PV systems utilizing community energy storage, solar-diesel hybrid systems, and micro-grids. The paper also considers policies and regulations to support resiliency.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations folder
Traditional interconnection processes evaluate the impacts a distributed generator has on system safety, reliability, and power quality. This concept paper introduces “Integrated Distribution Planning,” an emerging alternative methodology designed to enable DPV. In the report, utilities and distribution system operators proactively study the hosting capacity of distribution circuits, the ability of these circuits to accommodate growth in DG, and any necessary infrastructure upgrades; all in advance of receiving interconnection requests from generators.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations folder
IEEE 1547 was introduced in 2003 when DER penetration was low in most places. As some regions like Germany, California, and Hawaii reach higher levels of DG penetrations, alterations to IEEE 1547 are required. IEEE has fast-tracked the development of a full-revision of 1547 to maintain cross-system compatibility; drafts of the new version enhance the capabilities of DER to provide grid support, voltage ride-through, and reactive power modes for generators in high-penetration contexts. The updated version is currently an active draft, the full version will be released in 2018. 1547.1 provides engineers with interconnection system testing guidelines and will also be updated. Both 1547 and 1547.1 are recognized by UL 1741 and are to be used in conjunction.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations folder
DG owners can be compensated in different ways for the electricity their systems generate. This short report defines compensation mechanisms for grid-connected, behind-the-meter DG systems as instruments that comprise three core elements: (1) metering & billing arrangements, (2) sell rate design, and (3) retail rate design. This report explores metering & billing arrangements (net energy metering (NEM); buy all, sell all; and net billing), with some limited discussion of sell rate design.
Located in Topics & Resources / Regulation & Public Policy / Regulation & Public Policy folder
This report, written to inform energy planning in China, showcases regulatory support, policies, and financing innovations that have enabled DPV deployment and market growth in the U.S.
Located in Topics & Resources / Regulation & Public Policy / Regulation & Public Policy folder
New DG compensation mechanisms—such as value of solar and distributed locational marginal pricing—can offer additional value to generators while dampening the volatility of high DG penetration on the grid. Various pricing options, and policy options for protecting revenue adequacy for utilities are assessed in this report to provide readers with a variety of novel options to better compensate all stakeholders.
Located in Topics & Resources / Regulation & Public Policy / Regulation & Public Policy folder
As adoption of DG increases, demand for utility provided power decreases. This report assesses the impacts this decreased demand is likely to have on utility recovery of fixed costs, rate structures, and emphasizes best practices for DG regulation.
Located in Topics & Resources / Regulation & Public Policy / Regulation & Public Policy folder
Incentive programs credit DPV generators for their production and, in several U.S. states, have been successful at creating demand for DPV to meet targets. This report examines various incentive structures and recommends best practices. Some incentive structures are found to be contextually more applicable than others, and tools to align incentives with changing market conditions are discussed. Because ratepayers are usually funding incentives, methods to protect ratepayers and ensure cost-effectiveness are also discussed. Utilities looking for ways to incentivize DPV to meet targets or obligations can find value in this report.
Located in Topics & Resources / Regulation & Public Policy / Regulation & Public Policy folder
DG can play a role in sustainable, low-emission, climate-resilient development worldwide. This report identifies the benefits of DG deployment in development scenarios through energy access, greenhouse gas emission mitigation, and climate resilience as well as specific actions that may enhance or increase the likelihood of climate and development benefits. Additionally, several brief case-studies of DG deployment in developing communities are included.
Located in Topics & Resources / Regulation & Public Policy / Regulation & Public Policy folder
Value of solar is an emerging concept that provides a mechanism for utilities to compensate customers who generate their own electricity through DPV, based upon the cost-benefits to the power system. This report discusses program design options for Value of Solar tariff offerings and the impact of this type of tariff on future deployment of DPV. It also includes case studies from two jurisdictions in the United States (Austin, Texas and the state of Minnesota) that have adopted Value of Solar mechanisms.
Located in Topics & Resources / Regulation & Public Policy / Regulation & Public Policy folder
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