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The Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) commissioned this study of the ancillary services requirements for its system to accommodate up to 15,000 MW of wind energy. The Study evaluates and makes recommendations related to the methodology used by ERCOT to determine ancillary service needs; estimates the impacts of wind generation on the costs of ancillary services; and identifies changes to procedures related to severe weather conditions. ERCOT re-evaluated—and largely validated—the results of this study in a 2013 update.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Integration Studies / Grid Integration Studies folder
This report explores how various balancing areas in North America provide ancillary services and addresses regulatory institutional practices for maintaining system integrity. The report surveys different practices that balancing areas use to plan for and manage the provision of ancillary services and makes recommendations related to enlarging and/or increasing the coordination among balancing areas to provide ancillary services. The authors seek to clarify the balancing area rules that each entity much follow, and how the many balancing areas in North America can operate in a homogenous way to address ancillary service requirements for variable RE generation.
Located in Topics & Resources / Ancillary Services / Ancillary Services folder
This document includes a summary of the Spanish power system schedule (page 5) and electricity price stacks with ancillary services broken out (page 13). The report also includes a chart showing the impact of wind on primary, secondary, tertiary, and supplemental reserves (page 27). Also included is a description of Spain’s RE generation control center.
Located in Topics & Resources / Ancillary Services / Ancillary Services folder
The 21st Century Power Partnership supports global power sector transformation. The Partnership has developed a curated, annotated resource library that provides reports, academic literature, case studies, and good practices to support distributed generation regulation in a variety of power system contexts. The library is organized around several topical areas: Ratemaking, Understanding Impacts, Interconnection, Alternative Business and Regulatory Models, Planning, and Case Studies.
Located in Topics & Resources / Distributed Generation / Distributed Generation folder
This study analyzes the ability of the Eastern Interconnection of the United States, one of the largest power systems in the world, to accommodate high penetrations of wind and solar power. Using advanced modeling and computing techniques, the project team simulated the large-scale adoption of wind and solar energy at a temporal resolution up to 5 minutes. The study represents the cutting-edge of power system modeling, employing a high spatial resolution to include all synchronous components of the Eastern Interconnection. Results suggest that the Eastern Interconnection can reliably integrate upwards of 30% variable renewable energy in the power mix. However, meeting the 30% target will require increased balancing area coordination, incentives for transmission and generation to provide necessary ancillary services, and increased flexibility of traditional generators. In addition to the technical report, the full dataset as well as animations showing net interchange for two study scenarios are available for free download.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Integration Studies / Grid Integration Studies folder
This study summarizes the results of an in-depth modeling of the U.S. Eastern Interconnection, wind integration study, and transmission analysis. The study examines various technical issues under a 20% wind integration scenario. Section 5 examines power system regulation and balancing, and Section 6 explores impacts on systems operation. The report assesses ancillary services that provide both spinning and nonspinning reserves and offer frequency response, balancing, and system security.
Located in Topics & Resources / Ancillary Services / Ancillary Services folder
The Eastern Wind Integration Transmission Study examines the operational impact of up to 20-30% wind energy penetration in the Eastern Interconnection, one of the three synchronous grids in the contiguous United States. The study addresses a variety of issues related to wind energy and transmission development, including the costs, impacts, and enabling mechanisms (e.g., geographic diversity, forecasting, operating reserves) associated with significant wind penetration. A follow-on study, the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study, is anticipated to be released in winter, 2015.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Integration Studies / Grid Integration Studies folder
Capacity expansion modeling is a fundamental tool for planning the future power system. Capacity expansion models can provide insights on possible pathways for the power system under different assumptions about technology innovation, transmission expansion, demand changes, and policies. This report summarizes the experience of capacity expansion modeling at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The authors address in detail NREL’s approach to key questions that arise when modeling future capacity expansion, with a particular emphasis on modeling significant levels of variable RE deployment.
Located in Topics & Resources / Planning for Grid Integration / Planning for Grid Integration folder
Developed in response to the ambitious RE targets established by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, the Hawaii Solar Integration Study evaluates the operational impacts of high penetrations of solar PV (including both centralized and distributed PV) on the electricity grids of two Hawaiian islands: Maui and Oahu. The two islands provide examples of small power grids with differing levels of firm and RE capacity. The study examines variability, the ability to curtail power output, grid support, and load characteristics in the context of increasing variable RE on these systems. The technical reports underlying the summary are available here.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Integration Studies / Grid Integration Studies folder
When not properly addressed, high penetrations of DPV on a distribution system present issues like voltage overload, reverse power flow, and protection failure, which threaten system reliability. Drawing upon results from a five-year study of the Southern California Edison (SCE) distribution system, this handbook presents a detailed analysis of the potential impacts and mitigation techniques when integrating DPV. Written for distribution engineers, the handbook also provides a study guide for modeling and assessing PV impacts, covering topics such as model development, data validation and measurement, study criteria, and the steps involved in power flow and fault analysis. While the impacts and mitigation techniques described in this handbook are written for utility-scale PV systems (1-5 MW), much of the information is also relevant for the proliferation of smaller, DPV systems.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations folder
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